Know Your Rights

Knowledge is power! As you navigate caring for yourself and your loved ones while earning a paycheck, a combination of federal, state, and local workplace laws can help ensure you are free from discrimination and have the time and support you need.

 

This state-by-state guide is organized into five tabs based on the situations that may be prompting you to seek information about your legal rights. Many of the laws we address overlap and can be used for different purposes, and are therefore discussed under more than one tab.

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Vermont

Staying healthy at work while you are pregnant is sometimes challenging: you may be dealing with morning sickness, back pain, or doctor’s appointments every few weeks. For women who have suffered a miscarriage, you may need to take time off for recovery. U.S., Vermont, and local laws can help you stay healthy at work, give you time off when you need it, and protect you from pregnancy discrimination.

Pregnancy Discrimination 

  • The Pregnancy Discrimination Act makes it illegal for any employer in the U.S. with 15 or more workers to treat employees unfairly because they are pregnant, trying to get pregnant, or have experienced a pregnancy loss. That means:
    • Your boss can’t fire you or cut your hours when they find out that you’re pregnant or trying to get pregnant—you have the right to keep working as long as you can still do your job. You also have the right to be free from harassment at work because you are pregnant.
    • If your employer asks you about your pregnancy or plans to have children in a job interview, that may be evidence of pregnancy discrimination.
    • Your employer can’t treat you differently from other workers just because you are pregnant or have had a miscarriage. In 2015, the Supreme Court decided a case where it clarified what this means. The Court said that employers may not put a “significant burden” on pregnant employees. How do you know what’s a significant burden? Start looking around at how your employer treats other non-pregnant employees who have needed an accommodation at work. For example, does your employer have a policy of giving light duty only to those with on-the-job injuries? Or did they have no problem helping out folks with non-pregnancy-related disabilities, but sent all the pregnant women out onto unpaid leave? If so, this could be evidence of pregnancy discrimination. It’s best to collect all the evidence you can (policies, employee handbooks or manuals, digging around to find out how others have been treated) and to discuss your particular situation with an attorney.
  • The Vermont Fair Employment Practices Act also bans sex discrimination, which courts have interpreted to include pregnancy.  It covers all employers, regardless of size.

Workplace Accommodations

If you need changes at work to stay healthy on the job, the laws below can help. In addition, click the green button to learn how to talk with your boss about your pregnancy and request an accommodation if you need one.

  • Under Vermont’s pregnancy accommodations law, if you need a “reasonable accommodation” for a pregnancy-related condition your employer has to give it to you unless it would be really difficult or expensive. This means:
    • Your boss can’t just fire you if you ask for a chair to sit on or light duty while you are pregnant—they have to give you what you need to stay healthy at work, unless your employer can show that it would seriously harm the business.
    • For more information about your rights under this law, see here.
  • If you are covered under Vermont’s Paid Sick Time law, you may be able to use your accrued paid time off for medical needs while pregnant, e.g., for a prenatal appointment. For more information on this law, see the “Caring for Your Own Medical Needs” tab.
  • The Americans with Disabilities Act makes it illegal for employers in the U.S. with 15 or more employees to discriminate against workers with disabilities. Some pregnancy-related conditions, such as preeclampsia or gestational diabetes, are considered disabilities under the law. This means:
    • Your boss cannot fire you, refuse to give you a promotion, or harass you because you have a pregnancy-related disability.
    • If you have a pregnancy-related disability, your boss cannot refuse to give you small changes at work that you need to stay healthy, like breaks to take medication, temporary relief from heavy lifting, or a stool to sit on during your shift. These changes are called “reasonable accommodations” and are available as long as you can still complete the basic duties of your job with those changes. Your boss does not have to give you an accommodation that would be very difficult or expensive, like building a whole new office.
    • Although pregnancy, by itself, is not considered a “disability,” some conditions of pregnancy may be disabilities so check with a lawyer to see whether you have a right to an accommodation at work.
  • The Vermont Fair Employment Practices Act also bans discrimination based on disability. It covers all employers, regardless of size.
  • If you are covered by the Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA) or the Vermont Parental and Family Leave Act (VPFLA) you have the right to take time off during pregnancy or after experiencing a miscarriage without losing your job. See the “Time Off for Childbirth and Bonding” section under the next tab for more information on these laws and see this guide to your workplace rights around miscarriage.
  • Vermont’s pregnancy accommodations law (see above) may also give you the right to unpaid, job-protected time off work as a “reasonable accommodation.

Please note that each of these laws often covers certain categories of employees, but may not cover all types of employees. For example, special rules often apply to government employees. Additionally, different laws may have different standards to determine which health needs qualify for coverage. And, in many cases, more than one law may apply to your situation. If you have a question about whether you are covered under any of the laws mentioned, contact A Better Balance at 1-833-NEED-ABB.

The U.S. is one of the only countries in the world with no national law guaranteeing women the right to paid leave for childbirth. However, you may have the right to unpaid leave during pregnancy, childbirth, and to bond with a new child. You may have additional rights under state and/or local laws. See the “Caring for Your Own Medical Needs” or “Caring for a Loved One” tabs for more information.

Unpaid, Job-Protected Leave 

The law may protect your job while you are taking leave due to pregnancy, childbirth, or to bond with a new child (including adopted and foster children).

  • If you are covered, the Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA) allows you to take up to 12 weeks of unpaid time off of work per year to address your own serious health needs (including pregnancy), bond with a new child, care for a seriously ill or injured family member, or address certain military family needs—without losing your job (or your health insurance, if you have it).
    • Only about half of all private sector workers in the U.S. are covered by the law. You must (1) work for the government or a company with 50 or more employees within 75 miles of your worksite; and (2) have worked with your employer for at least 1 year; and (3) have worked at least 1,250 hours in the year before taking leave.
    • If you are covered, you can use the 12 weeks to care for your own health (including pregnancy), to care for a new child after birth, adoption, or foster placement, or to care for a seriously ill family member. Remember that you only get 12 weeks a year in total—if you take time off before you give birth for your own health needs, you’ll have less time afterward to spend with your baby.
    • Before giving birth, you may use your leave an hour or day at a time—such as by taking a day off per week to go to the doctor—rather than all at once. Your employer must approve, however, if you want to use leave time in smaller chunks to bond with your baby.
    • While you are on leave, if you receive health insurance through your employer, you have the right to keep your health insurance benefits.
    • When you return to work, you have the right to return to the same or a very similar job, unless you fall into a narrow exception.
    • If you are in the top 10% of highest-paid workers in your company, different rules apply.
    • If you have accrued paid leave from your employer, you may choose to use that paid time off concurrently with your FMLA time. Your employer can also require you to use your paid leave—including paid vacation, personal, or sick days—while you are taking FMLA leave.
  • Vermont has a law that is very similar to the FMLA but covers more workers— the Vermont Parental and Family Leave Act (VPFLA). If you are covered, you can up to take 12 weeks in a 12-month period for 1) parental leave during your pregnancy, following the birth of your child, or within a year of adopting a child who is 16 years old or under; or 2) family leave for your own serious illness or if your child, stepchild, legal ward, foster child, parent, spouse, or your spouse’s parent has a serious illness.
    • To be eligible for parental leave, you must work for an employer with 10 or more employees.
    • To be eligible for family leave, you must work for an employer with 15 or more employees.
    • For either type of leave, you must have worked for your employer for at least 1 year, and for an average of 30 hours per week.
    • Your employer must maintain your health insurance while you are out on leave under the same conditions in which coverage is provided while you’re working.
    • For more information, see here.
  • Vermont’s pregnancy accommodations law may also give you the right to unpaid, job-protected time off work as a reasonable accommodation to physically recover from childbirth. See the “Pregnancy/Pregnancy Loss” tab for more information.
  • If your boss treats workers who take time off for childbirth differently from workers who take time off for other medical treatments (for example, they give most workers 2 weeks off for surgery but only 1 week for childbirth), this could be illegal under the national Pregnancy Discrimination Act and/or the Vermont Fair Employment Practices Act. Call A Better Balance if you think you are being treated unfairly.

Please note that each of these laws often covers certain categories of employees, but may not cover all types of employees. For example, special rules often apply to government employees. Additionally, different laws may have different standards to determine which health needs qualify for coverage. And, in many cases, more than one law may apply to your situation. If you have a question about whether you are covered under any of the laws mentioned, contact A Better Balance at 1-833-NEED-ABB.

When you return to work as a new parent, you may still need a few extra breaks to pump breastmilk or time off to care for your baby when they’re sick. There are a few laws that can help you get back to work safely and still care for your family.

Returning from Childbirth 

Nursing Rights

  • If you work in Vermont, your employer must give you break time throughout the day to express breast milk for up to 3 years after giving birth. They also must try to provide a private location, other than a bathroom stall, for you to pump, and cannot discriminate against you for exercising your breastfeeding rights.
  • Vermont’s pregnancy accommodations law may also give you the right to other lactation accommodations. Your employer does not have to provide accommodations that would create an undue hardship, meaning they would impose significant difficulty or expense on the business. See the “Pregnancy/Pregnancy Loss” tab for more information. 
  • Rights for breastfeeding workers are strong in Vermont, but national laws may also protect you (for example, if you work outside Vermont):
    • The Affordable Care Act (“Obamacare”) gives some U.S. workers the right to take unpaid breaks at work to pump milk, and requires some employers to find a clean, private place that’s not a bathroom for employees to pump milk. This law only applies to workers and employers who are covered by the Fair Labor Standards Act (FLSA)—the law that sets minimum wage and overtime requirements.
  • It may also be illegal under the Pregnancy Discrimination Act for your boss to punish or discriminate against you because you are lactating.
  • Under Vermont law, you have the right to breastfeed your child in any public location.
  • For more information about your nursing rights, click here.

Caring for Your Family: Family Illness and Caregiver Discrimination 

As a new parent, you may face discrimination at work or have problems taking time off when you or your baby is sick. These laws can help you balance your job and caring for your family.

  • If you are covered, Vermont’s Paid Sick Time law gives you the right to paid time off, without losing you job, if you need to recover from physical/mental illness or injury; seek medical diagnosis, treatment, or preventative care; or care for a family member who is ill or needs medical diagnosis, treatment, or preventative care.
    • If you work for an employer for at least an average of 18 hours per week, you have the right to earn and take up to 40 hours of paid sick time a year.
    • Under the law, you earn sick time at the rate of one hour for every 52 hours you work.
    • Under the law, you can also use sick time to:
      • accompany your parent, grandparent, spouse, or parent-in-law to an appointment related to that person’s long-term care;
      • care for a family member (including your child, spouse, parent, parent of a spouse, grandchild, grandparent, or sibling) whose school or business is closed for public health or safety reasons; or
      • address needs (including non-medical needs) that may arise if you or a family member is a victim of domestic violence, a sexual offense, or stalking.
    • For more information, see here.
  • If you work for an employer with 15 or more employees, you may also have the right to short-term family leave. To be eligible, you must have worked for your employer for at least 1 year, and for an average of 30 hours per week.
    • Under this law, you have the right to take up to 4 hours in any 30-day period (but not more than 24 hours in any 12-month period) of short-term, unpaid
    • You may use this leave for a variety of reasons including to participate in certain preschool or school activities of your child, stepchild, foster child, or ward who lives with you; accompany a family member to routine medical or dental appointments or other appointments for professional services related to their care and well-being; or respond to a family member’s medical emergency.
    • For more information, see here.
  • If you are covered, the Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA) allows you to take up to 12 weeks of unpaid time off of work per year to address your own serious health needs (including pregnancy), bond with a new child, care for a seriously ill or injured family member, or address certain military family needs—without losing your job (or your health insurance, if you have it). You may have similar rights under the Vermont Parental and Family Leave Act (VPFLA). See the “Time Off for Childbirth and Bonding” tab for more information on these laws.
  • If you work in Vermont, you have the right to request a flexible working arrangement that meets the needs of you and your employer. Your employer must consider your request at least twice per calendar year.
  • The Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) bans unfair treatment of workers based on their relationship with a person with a disability. For example, your boss can’t cut your hours because they think you can’t work as hard because you have a child with asthma. Or your boss cannot assume that you will cost more on the company’s health insurance plan because your family member is seriously ill. However, this law does not give relatives of a person with a disability the right to accommodations, such as a schedule change, to help them provide care. The Vermont Fair Employment Practices Act also bans this kind of discrimination.
  • If you lose your job because you have family caregiving responsibilities, you may still be able to get Unemployment Insurance. For more information about how to apply, consult your state’s website. You may also want to consult with an attorney if you have questions about your eligibility.

Please note that each of these laws often covers certain categories of employees, but may not cover all types of employees. For example, special rules often apply to government employees. Additionally, different laws may have different standards to determine which health needs qualify for coverage. And, in many cases, more than one law may apply to your situation. If you have a question about whether you are covered under any of the laws mentioned, contact A Better Balance at 1-833-NEED-ABB.

When you are sick—be it with a bad cold or more serious illness or injury—you may need time off from work to rest and heal. Federal, state, and local laws, may give you time off when you need it and protect you from employment discrimination.

Taking Time Off from Work

  • If you are covered, Vermont’s Paid Sick Time law gives you the right to paid time off, without losing you job, if you need to recover from physical/mental illness or injury; seek medical diagnosis, treatment, or preventative care; or care for a family member who is ill or needs medical diagnosis, treatment, or preventative care.
    • If you work for an employer for at least an average of 18 hours per week, you have the right to earn and take up to 40 hours of paid sick time a year.
    • Under the law, you earn sick time at the rate of one hour for every 52 hours you work.
    • Under the law, you can also use sick time to:
      • accompany your parent, grandparent, spouse, or parent-in-law to an appointment related to that person’s long-term care;
      • care for a family member (including your child, spouse, parent, parent of a spouse, grandchild, grandparent, or sibling) whose school or business is closed for public health or safety reasons; or
      • address needs (including non-medical needs) that may arise if you or a family member is a victim of domestic violence, a sexual offense, or stalking.
    • For more information, see here.
  • If you are covered, the Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA) allows you to take up to 12 weeks of unpaid time off of work per year to address your own serious health needs (including pregnancy), bond with a new child, care for a seriously ill or injured family member, or address certain military family needs—without losing your job (or your health insurance, if you have it).
    • Only about half of all private sector workers in the U.S. are covered by the law. You must (1) work for the government or a company with 50 or more employees within 75 miles of your worksite; and (2) have worked with your employer for at least 1 year; and (3) have worked at least 1,250 hours in the year before taking leave.
    • If you are covered, you can use the 12 weeks to care for your own serious medical needs, including those related to pregnancy and recovery from childbirth. You may also take the leave on an intermittent basis or may work on a reduced schedule.
    • While you are on leave, if you receive health insurance through your employer, you have the right to keep your health insurance benefits.
    • When you return to work, you have the right to return to the same or a very similar job, unless you fall into a narrow exception.
    • If you have accrued paid leave from your employer, you may choose to use that paid time off concurrently with your FMLA time. Your employer can also require you to use your paid leave—including paid vacation, personal, or sick days—while you are taking FMLA leave.
    • For more information about the FMLA, see here.
  • Vermont has a law that is very similar to the FMLA but covers more workers—the Vermont Parental and Family Leave Act (VPFLA). If you are covered, you can up to take 12 weeks in a 12-month period for 1) parental leave during your pregnancy, following the birth of your child, or within a year of adopting a child who is 16 years old or under; or 2) family leave for your own serious illness or if your child, stepchild, legal ward, foster child, parent, spouse, or your spouse’s parent has a serious illness.
    • To be eligible for parental leave, you must work for an employer with 10 or more employees.
    • To be eligible for family leave, you must work for an employer with 15 or more employees.
    • For either type of leave, you must have worked for your employer for at least 1 year, and for an average of 30 hours per week.
    • Your employer must maintain your health insurance while you are out on leave under the same conditions in which coverage is provided while you’re working.
    • For more information, see here.
  • If you were hurt while working or became sick as a result of your job, you may also be entitled to paid benefits and other protections through Workers’ Compensation.
  • If you lose your job due to your own medical needs, you may still be able to get Unemployment Insurance. For more information about how to apply, consult your state’s website. You may also want to consult with an attorney if you have questions about your eligibility.

Reasonable Accommodations and Anti-Discrimination Laws 

  • The Vermont Fair Employment Practices Act bans disability discrimination and covers all employers, regardless of size. Should your disability require some changes to your position, your boss must provide you with a reasonable accommodation so that you can perform your job, unless it would be very difficult or expensive for them to do so. A reasonable accommodation can include anything from changes to your workspace to modifying your work schedule to restructuring your job.
  • The Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) requires employers in the U.S. with 15 or more employees to provide reasonable accommodations to workers with disabilities and makes it illegal for employers to discriminate against workers with disabilities. Disability is defined as a physical or mental impairment that substantially limits one or more major life activities, which can include caring for oneself, performing manual tasks, seeing, hearing, eating, sleeping, walking, standing, lifting, bending, speaking, breathing, learning, reading, concentrating, thinking, communicating, and working. This means:
    • Your boss cannot fire you, refuse to give you a promotion, or harass you because you have a disability.
    • If you have a disability, your boss cannot refuse to give you small changes at work that you need to stay healthy, like breaks to take medication, temporary relief from heavy lifting, or a stool to sit on during your shift. These changes are called “reasonable accommodations” and are available as long as you can still complete the basic duties of your job with those changes. Your boss does not have to give you an accommodation that would be very difficult or expensive, like building a whole new office.

Please note that each of these laws often covers certain categories of employees, but may not cover all types of employees. For example, special rules often apply to government employees. Additionally, different laws may have different standards to determine which health needs qualify for coverage. And, in many cases, more than one law may apply to your situation. If you have a question about whether you are covered under any of the laws mentioned, contact A Better Balance at 1-833-NEED-ABB.

When a child or family member gets sick or injured—be it with a bad cold or a more serious illness or injury—you may need to take some time off from work to care for them. Federal, state, and local laws may give you time off when you need it and protect you from employment discrimination.

Taking Time Off from Work

  • If you are covered, Vermont’s Paid Sick Time law gives you the right to paid time off, without losing you job, if you need to recover from physical/mental illness or injury; seek medical diagnosis, treatment, or preventative care; or care for a family member who is ill or needs medical diagnosis, treatment, or preventative care.
    • If you work for an employer for at least an average of 18 hours per week, you have the right to earn and take up to 40 hours of paid sick time a year.
    • Under the law, you earn sick time at the rate of one hour for every 52 hours you work.
    • Under the law, you can also use sick time to:
      • accompany your parent, grandparent, spouse, or parent-in-law to an appointment related to that person’s long-term care;
      • care for a family member (including your child, spouse, parent, parent of a spouse, grandchild, grandparent, or sibling) whose school or business is closed for public health or safety reasons; or
      • address needs (including non-medical needs) that may arise if you or a family member is a victim of domestic violence, a sexual offense, or stalking.
    • For more information, see here.
  • If you are covered, the Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA) allows you to take up to 12 weeks of unpaid time off of work per year to address your own serious health needs (including pregnancy), bond with a new child, care for a seriously ill or injured family member, or address certain military family needs—without losing your job (or your health insurance, if you have it).
    • Only about half of all private sector workers in the U.S. are covered by the law. You must (1) work for the government or a company with 50 or more employees within 75 miles of your worksite; and (2) have worked with your employer for at least 1 year; and (3) have worked at least 1,250 hours in the year before taking leave.
    • If you are covered, you can use the 12 weeks to care for your own serious medical needs, including those related to pregnancy and recovery from childbirth. You may also take the leave on an intermittent basis or may work on a reduced schedule.
    • While you are on leave, if you receive health insurance through your employer, you have the right to keep your health insurance benefits.
    • When you return to work, you have the right to return to the same or a very similar job, unless you fall into a narrow exception.
    • If you have accrued paid leave from your employer, you may choose to use that paid time off concurrently with your FMLA time. Your employer can also require you to use your paid leave—including paid vacation, personal, or sick days—while you are taking FMLA leave.
    • For more information about the FMLA, see here.
  • Vermont has a law that is very similar to the FMLA but covers more workers—the Vermont Parental and Family Leave Act (VPFLA). If you are covered, you can up to take 12 weeks in a 12-month period for 1) parental leave during your pregnancy, following the birth of your child, or within a year of adopting a child who is 16 years old or under; or 2) family leave for your own serious illness or if your child, stepchild, legal ward, foster child, parent, spouse, or your spouse’s parent has a serious illness.
    • To be eligible for parental leave, you must work for an employer with 10 or more employees.
    • To be eligible for family leave, you must work for an employer with 15 or more employees.
    • For either type of leave, you must have worked for your employer for at least 1 year, and for an average of 30 hours per week.
    • Your employer must maintain your health insurance while you are out on leave under the same conditions in which coverage is provided while you’re working.
    • For more information, see here.
  • If you lose your job because you have family caregiving responsibilities, you may still be able to get Unemployment Insurance. For more information about how to apply, consult your state’s website. You may also want to consult with an attorney if you have questions about your eligibility.

Special Protections for Veterans’ and Military Families

  • If you are covered by the Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA), and a close family member is, or was, in the Armed Services, you may be entitled to additional protections under the FMLA.
  • The FMLA provides special protections for service-connected injuries or illnesses. If you are the spouse, parent, son, daughter, or next-of-kin of a veteran or a member of the Armed Services, including the National Guard and Reserves, you may be able to take military caregiver leave. You can take up to a total of 26 weeks of unpaid leave a year to take care of your military relative if he or she has a serious injury or illness stemming from his or her military service.
  • In addition to the ordinary protections under the Family and Medical Leave Act, if you have a parent, child, or spouse on or called to active duty service in a foreign country, you may be eligible for what is called “qualifying exigency” leave under the Family and Medical Leave Act to address certain needs arising out of that active duty service. This leave allows you to take up to a total of 12 weeks of unpaid leave a year.
    • This leave is available to address many different types of needs, including:
      • tending to the needs of the children of a service member, such as arranging childcare, attending meetings, or enrolling the child in a new school
      • making legal or financial arrangements for a military member
      • spending time with a servicemember on a short-term rest and recuperation leave
      • arranging care for the parent of a servicemember when the parent is unable to care for himself or herself.

Anti-Discrimination Laws

  • The Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) bans unfair treatment of workers based on their relationship with a person with a disability. For example, your boss can’t cut your hours because they think you can’t work as hard because you have a child with asthma. Or your boss cannot assume that you will cost more on the company’s health insurance plan because your family member is seriously ill. However, this law does not give relatives of a person with a disability the right to accommodations, such as a schedule change, to help them provide care.

Please note that each of these laws often covers certain categories of employees, but may not cover all types of employees. For example, special rules often apply to government employees. Additionally, different laws may have different standards to determine which health needs qualify for coverage. And, in many cases, more than one law may apply to your situation. If you have a question about whether you are covered under any of the laws mentioned, contact A Better Balance at 1-833-NEED-ABB.

© A Better Balance

Please note that this state-by-state guide is not intended to provide an exhaustive overview of any one law described. It is possible that other provisions may apply to your specific circumstances or category of employment.

Note also that the information contained in this guide does not constitute legal advice. It is always advisable to consult with an attorney about your individual circumstances if you have questions or think your rights as a worker have been violated.

If you have additional questions about your rights, you can contact our free, confidential legal helpline.

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